A two-bay narthex at the western end opens into a seven bay nave leading to the crossing, from which wide transepts extend three bays each to north and south. Although estimates vary (depending on how one counts compound or grouped windows) approximately 152 of the original 176 stained glass windows survive – far more than any other medieval cathedral anywhere in the world. All that’s left most artists seem to feel these days, is man. Queste vetrate sono grandi all'esterno e ridotte all'interno perché il significato spirituale è più facile da percepire [...]. [28][29] All three of these windows were originally made around 1145 but were restored in the early 13th century and again in the 19th. At least five cathedrals have stood on this site, each replacing an earlier building damaged by war or fire. Its highly ornate Flamboyant Gothic style contrasts with the earlier chapels. According to legend, the relic was given to the cathedral by Charlemagne who received it as a gift from Emperor Constantine VI during a crusade to Jerusalem. [31], Scene from the Good Samaritan window; Christ tells the Good Samaritan parable to the Pharisees, Shoemakers at work in the Good Samaritan window. Homes & Meier. It is in the High Gothic and Romanesque styles. The arches press against the walls, counterbalancing the outward thrust from the rib vaults over the cathedral interior. A few windows were replaced with much lighter grisaille glass in the 14th century to improve illumination, particularly on the north side[34] and several more were replaced with clear glass in 1753 as part of the reforms to liturgical practice that also led to the removal of the jubé. Se presenti all’interno di costruzioni religiose, come in questo caso, assumono un significato spirituale ed esoterico molto forte.. Il labirinto ha un'area pari a quella del rosone centrale e il giorno del solstizio d'estate (20 o 21 giugno), all'ora che corrisponde al mezzogiorno e attualmente si colloca intorno alle 14, un raggio di sole filtra da un foro della vetrata di Sant'Apollinare, nella navata laterale occidentale, illuminando una lastra di pietra più bianca e posta di sbieco rispetto alle altre che formano il pavimento; su questa, il raggio si posa su di uno sbalzo metallico leggermente dorato, fissato forando la pietra. La cattedrale di Chartres. L'attuale dipartimento dell' Eure-et-Loir corrisponde alla parte centrale del territorio dei Carnuti, di cui Chartres era la capitale, sotto il … Early in the French Revolution a mob attacked and began to destroy the sculpture on the north porch, but was stopped by a larger crowd of townspeople. [36], One notable feature of the crypt is the Well of the Saints-Forts. The celebrated Black Madonna statue was cleaned, and her face was found to be white under the soot. It is indexed in the Base Mérimée, a database of architectural heritage maintained by the French Ministry of … F IGURA 2. The north tower was begun in 1134, to replace a Romanesque tower that was damaged by fire. Joseph Campbell references his spiritual experience in The Power of Myth: I'm back in the Middle Ages. Textiles were sold around the north transept, while meat, vegetable and fuel sellers congregated around the south porch. East of the crossing are four rectangular bays terminating in a semicircular apse. [6], In 1134, another fire in the town damaged the facade and the bell tower of the cathedral. Reconstruction began almost immediately. On top of this structure he built the upper church, 108 meters long and 34 meters wide. La massa della cattedrale è parzialmente coperta da un cumulo si terra in primo piano. [55] As well as greatly increasing the cathedral's income, throughout the 12th and 13th centuries this led to regular disputes, often violent, between the bishops, the chapter and the civic authorities – particularly when serfs belonging to the counts transferred their trade (and taxes) to the cathedral. When ergotism (more popularly known in the Middle Ages as "St. Anthony's fire") afflicted many victims, the crypt of the original church became a hospital to care for the sick. Jambs of the center doorway of the Royal Portal, with statues of the men and women of the Old Testament, West portal, tympanum of left door. On certain days the chairs of the nave are removed so that visiting pilgrims can follow the labyrinth. [10], La cattedrale presenta una struttura a croce latina con tre navate di sei campate, tripartizione presente anche nei due bracci del transetto (di tre campate ciascuno) e nel coro (di quattro campate), con le navatelle che si ricongiungono intorno all'abside semicircolare formando un deambulatorio con cappelle radiali. Scopri I misteri della cattedrale di Chartres di Charpentier, Louis, Giacomelli, M. E.: spedizione gratuita per i clienti Prime e per ordini a partire da 29€ spediti da Amazon. Traces of the vaults and the shafts which supported them are still visible in the western two bays. Central tympanum of the Royal portal. È il più celebre monumento della città ed è considerata uno degli edifici religiosi più importanti … Lungo il suo percorso si incontrano la cappella di Notre-Dame-sous-terre (lato nord), tre profonde cappelle romaniche inquadrate da quattro più piccole gotiche del XIII secolo (abside) e il pozzo detto des Saints-Forts (33 metri di profondità), costruito su una base quadrata gallo-romana, la cui acqua nel Medioevo era famosa per possedere virtù miracolose. Questo spiega la grandezza del deambulatorio che permette il passaggio dei fedeli attorno al coro. Questi brevi appunti, le impressioni e le riflessioni che vi sono riportate, si riferiscono alla mia prima visita alla cattedrale di Chartres, effettuata nel 1990. The north transept rose (10.5 m diameter, c. 1235), like much of the sculpture in the north porch beneath it, is dedicated to the Virgin. At the same time, some of the stained glass in the clerestory was removed and replaced with grisaille windows, greatly increasing the light on the high altar in the center of the church. La cattedrale di Chartres Chartres è situata in una regione abitata fin dalla preistoria, come attestano i monumenti megalitici e gli oggetti dell'epoca neolitica. This composition, known as the Sedes sapientiae ("Throne of Wisdom"), which also appears on the Portail royal, is based on the famous cult figure kept in the crypt. The ceremony took place in the choir of the church, after which the King and the Bishop mounted the rood screen to be seen by the crowd in the nave. It is surrounded by a much larger crypt, the Saint Fulbert Crypt, which completed in 1025, five years after the fire that destroyed most of the older cathedral. The south portal, which was added later than the others, in the 13th century, is devoted to events after the Crucifixion of Christ, and particularly to the Christian martyrs. We’re going to die. to the site. There are 167 windows, including rose windows, round oculi, and tall, pointed lancet windows. It's a place for meditation, just walking around, just sitting, just looking at those beautiful things. The two towers were joined on the first level by a chapel devoted to Saint Michael. The cathedral is featured in the television travel series The Naked Pilgrim; presenter Brian Sewell explores the cathedral and discusses its famous relic – the nativity cloak said to have been worn by the Virgin Mary. [59] However, the widespread belief[citation needed] that the cathedral was also the site of a pre-Christian druidical sect who worshipped a "Virgin who will give birth" is purely a late-medieval invention. Martin Filler, "A Scandalous Makeover at Chartres". Popular action-adventure video game Assassin's Creed features a climbable cathedral modelled heavily on the Chartres Cathedral. [25] Lo jubé del XIII secolo venne demolito nel 1763 e di esso si è conservata soltanto la statua della Madonna del pilastro, in legno di pero, realizzata nel 1508. Christ seated on a throne, surrounded by the symbols of the Evangelists; a winged man for St. Matthew, a lion for St. Mark; a bull for St. Luke; and an eagle for St. John. Money-changers (an essential service at a time when each town or region had its own currency) had their benches, or banques, near the west portals and also in the nave itself. It is located in the fifth bay of the south aisle and is dedicated to the Virgin Mary. The walls and sculpture, blackened by soot and age, again became white. The cathedral was already known throughout Europe as a pilgrimage destination, due to the reputed relics of the Virgin Mary that it contained. Some portions of the building had survived, including the two towers and the royal portal on the west end, and these were incorporated into the new cathedral. Ritraggono immagini di santi, profeti, sovrani e membri della nobiltà. Unlike mazes, there was only a single path that could be followed. [60], Today Chartres continues to attract large numbers of pilgrims, many of whom come to walk slowly around the labyrinth, their heads bowed in prayer – a devotional practice that the cathedral authorities accommodate by removing the chairs from the nave on Fridays from Lent to All Saints' Day (except for Good Friday).[61]. The second church on the site was set on fire by Danish pirates in 858. These men were at the forefront of the intense intellectual rethinking that culminated in what is now known as the twelfth-century renaissance, pioneering the Scholastic philosophy that came to dominate medieval thinking throughout Europe. The Virgin is depicted wearing a blue robe and sitting in a frontal pose on a throne, with the Christ Child seated on her lap raising his hand in blessing. [3] It took its name from Lubinus, the mid-6th-century Bishop of Chartres. Ours, the scientists keep telling us, is a universe, which is disposable. It is in the High Gothic and Romanesque styles. These works include statues of assorted monsters and demons. [17] Al centro vi è l'altare maggiore, chiamato Roc de Lumière (in italiano: roccia di luce), è costituito da una struttura portante in legno di rovere interamente rivestita lungo i lati da lastre d'argento scanalato con dodici colonne a base cubica, realizzate nel medesimo materiale, le quali sorreggono la mensa in granito verde dei Pirenei;[18] su di esso è posta la croce gloriosa pensile, grande stauroteca inaugurata nel 1997. The western rose (c. 1215, 12 m in diameter) shows the Last Judgment – a traditional theme for west façades. The last statues were put in place in 1714. [9], On August 16, 1944, during the intervention of the American troops in Chartres, the cathedral was saved from destruction thanks to the American colonel Welborn Barton Griffith Jr. (1901-1944), who questioned the order he was given to destroy the cathedral. [37], Another notable feature is the Our Lady of the Crypt Chapel. Carlo di Valois conte di Alençon e di Chartres Carlo di Valois conte di Alençon e di Chartres. The cathedral is the seat of the Bishop of Chartres of the Diocese of Chartres. Si trovano varie figure favolose tratte dai bestiari medievali, come nel caso delle raffigurazioni a destra della torre (facendo il giro dell'edificio sulla destra) ove troviamo un asino che suona la viola e una scrofa che fila. The upper floor of this chapel was accessed by a staircase opening onto the ambulatory. [citation needed] Specific pilgrimages were also held in response to outbreaks of disease. Lun-Dom 8:30-19:30, Giu-Ago fino alle 22:00. A vestige of this church, now known as Saint Lubin Chapel, remains, underneath the apse of the present cathedral. On 10 June 1194, another fire caused extensive damage to Fulbert's cathedral. This has been a subject of controversy (see below). The high vaults over the choir were not built until the last years of the 1250s, as was rediscovered in the first decade of the 21st century. [33] Another possible explanation is that the Cathedral clergy wanted to emphasise the universal reach of the Church, particularly at a time when their relationship with the local community was often a troubled one. La cattedrale Notre-Dame di Chartres è il principale luogo di culto cattolico di Chartres, nel dipartimento dell'Eure-et-Loir, nel nordovest della Francia, basilica minore (dal 1908) e sede vescovile dell'omonima diocesi. The undamaged western towers and façade were incorporated into the new works, as was the earlier crypt, effectively limiting the designers of the new building to the same general plan as its predecessor. most notably Gothic churches.[13]. These vaults were also innovative, having just four compartments, unlike the six-part vaults of earlier Gothic churches. The south tower was begun in about 1144 and was finished in 1150. The Three Kings are to her left, and the Apostles Savinien and Potentien to her right The chapel also has a modern stained glass window, the Mary, Door to Heaven Window, made by Henri Guérin, made by cementing together thick slabs of stained glass. In recent years however this view has largely been discounted, not least because each window would have cost around as much as a large mansion house to make – while most of the labourers depicted would have been subsistence workers with little or no disposable income. The book used the cathedral's architecture and history as clues in the search for a lost Gospel. Chartres è anche una tappa importante per i pellegrini provenienti dal nord Europa e diretti a Santiago di Compostela, che percorrono la strada tra Parigi e Tours. Nel corso del XX secolo i pellegrinaggi a Chartres hanno conosciuto un nuovo slancio al seguito dello scrittore Charles Péguy che si recò a piedi da Parigi a Chartres nel 1912, realizzando un voto fatto al capezzale del figlio malato. [21], Il coro e l'abside presentano la decorazione pittorica parietale policroma barocca, progettata dall'architetto Victor Louis e realizzata in due fasi, nel 1770-1773 da Jean-Baptiste Hermand e Nicolas Montlevaux e nel 1786-1788 da Joseph Antoine Gontheinze, che andò ad inglobare entro colonne corinzie i pilastri polistili gotici;[22] il pavimento in marmi policromi, invece, risale al 1773 ed è opera di Nicolas Montlevaux. Certe vetrate del XII secolo sono ancora presenti nell'edificio, essendosi salvate dall'incendio del 1194, che portò al rifacimento gotico della cattedrale: le più antiche risalgono all'epoca dell'abate Suger, verso il 1140, e sono tra le più antiche vetrate del mondo ancora in situ. The portals are richly decorated with sculptures, which rendered biblical stories and theological ideas visible for both the educated clergy and layfolk who may not have had access to textual learning.