[99] Additional staff were added in March 1938 consequent the annexation of Austria and again in October 1938 with the acquisition of the Sudetenland. Fearful of an internal overthrow, the forces of the Gestapo were unleashed on the opposition. [137], Occupation meant administration and policing, a duty assigned to the SS, the SD, and the Gestapo even before hostilities began, as was the case for Czechoslovakia. Storie di antifascismi (Archetipo, 2014) e ha curato Crimini di guerra. Thereafter, there was a show trial overseen by Roland Freisler, followed by their execution. [154], Leitstellung (district office) staff did wear the grey SS service uniform, but with police-pattern shoulderboards, and SS rank insignia on the left collar patch. After the war in Europe ended, the Gestapo was declared a criminal organization by the International Military Tribunal (IMT) at the Nuremberg trials. Questa pagina è stata modificata per l'ultima volta il 31 dic 2020 alle 15:18. Da settembre 1940 fino al luglio 1942, in qualità di leader della Judenreferat presso l'ufficio SD a Parigi, diresse il servizio di controspionaggio nazista e divenne capo della IV sezione J della Gestapo, incaricata della "questione ebraica". However, these internal departments remained and the Gestapo continued to be a department under the RSHA umbrella. Frick did not have the political power to take on Göring by himself so he allied with Himmler. Student opposition leaders were executed in late February, and a major opposition organisation, the Oster Circle, was destroyed in April 1943. [74][75] Stauffenberg and his group were shot on 21 July 1944; meanwhile, his fellow conspirators were rounded up by the Gestapo and sent to a concentration camp. [26] The Gestapo was specifically exempted from responsibility to administrative courts, where citizens normally could sue the state to conform to laws. [114] Gellately has also suggested that the Gestapo was "a reactive organisation" "... which was constructed within German society and whose functioning was structurally dependent on the continuing co-operation of German citizens". [110] The Gestapo office in Saarbrücken had 50 full-term informers in 1939. [135] Much like their affiliated orgainizations, the SS and the SD, the Gestapo "played a leading part" in enslaving and deporting workers from occupied territory, torturing and executing civilians, singling out and murdering Jews, and subjecting Allied prisoners of war to terrible treatment. A similar co-ordination existed in the local offices. [54] Homosexuals were correspondingly considered a threat to the Volksgemeinschaft (National Community). The Nazi administration immediately drew attention to the Jewish question: there were about 75 thousand Jews living in the former Yugoslavia, in Serbia alone there were about 17 thousand. This move also gave Himmler operational control over Germany's entire detective force. Traduzioni in contesto per "of the Gestapo" in inglese-italiano da Reverso Context: I was at the headquarters of the Gestapo. Guarda le traduzioni di ‘spacciasse’ in inglese. [30] In January 1943, Himmler appointed Ernst Kaltenbrunner RSHA chief; almost seven months after Heydrich had been assassinated. [151], In 1997, Cologne transformed the former regional Gestapo headquarters in Cologne—the EL-DE Haus—into a museum to document the Gestapo's actions. [100] One man who served in the Prussian Gestapo in 1933 recalled that most of his co-workers "were by no means Nazis. The Vampire Diaries - Wikipedia. On 10 August 1944 15 captured partisans held at the prison, hand picked by Theo Saevecke, head of the Gestapo in Milan, were publicly executed at Piazzale Loreto and left on display, as a reprisal for a partisan attack on a German military convoy. Nel 1929 Hitler lo nominò capo delle SS, carica che mantenne sino all'aprile 1934, quando divenne capo della Gestapo. Tali ufficiali rispondevano alle autorità delle SS in cui venivano distaccati. As Evans makes clear, "...it was not the ordinary German people who engaged in surveillance, it was the Gestapo; nothing happened until the Gestapo received a denunciation, and it was the Gestapo's active pursuit of deviance and dissent that was the only thing that gave denunciations meaning. [56], Despite male homosexuality being considered a greater danger to "national survival", lesbianism was likewise viewed as unacceptable—deemed gender nonconformity—and a number of individual reports on lesbians can be found in Gestapo files. -Gestapo. it Il 12 marzo 1938, Eberstein venne nominato Alto Capo della Polizia (HSSPF) per il distretto militare VII di Monaco di Baviera. In the occupied territories, the formal relationship between local units of the Gestapo, criminal police, and SD was slightly closer. Varying degrees of pacification and police enforcement measures were necessary in each place, dependent on how cooperative or resistant the locals were to Nazi mandates and racial policies. [99][d] Some locals aided the Gestapo, whether as professional police auxiliaries or in other duties. Heinrich Muller, il comandante della Gestapo - la polizia segreta di stato del Terzo Reich - e tra i principali responsabili dell'Olocausto, sarebbe sepolto in un cimitero ebraico a Berlino. More than that, the Anglo-American common language and capital interests kept Stalin at a distance since he felt the other Allied powers were hoping the fascists and Communists would destroy one another. [149], The trials began in November 1945. During World War II, the Gestapo played a key role in the Nazi plan to exterminate the Jews of Europe. [119], An examination of 213 denunciations in Düsseldorf showed that 37% were motivated by personal conflicts, no motive could be established in 39%, and 24% were motivated by support for the Nazi regime. [65], During May 1935, the Gestapo broke up and arrested members of the "Markwitz Circle", a group of former socialists in contact with Otto Strasser, who sought Hitler's downfall. Diario della Memoria. Department C (Administration and Party Affairs), central administrative office of the Gestapo, responsible for card files of all personnel including all officials. The SD sleeve diamond (SD Raute) insignia was worn on the lower left sleeve, even by SiPo men who were not in the SD. Guarda gli esempi di traduzione di spacciasse nelle frasi, ascolta la pronuncia e impara la grammatica. The Geheime Staatspolizei (Secret State Police), abbreviated Gestapo (German: [ɡəˈʃtaːpo]; /ɡəˈstɑːpoʊ/),[2] was the official secret police of Nazi Germany and in German-occupied Europe. [105] Browder also describes a sandwich effect, where from above; Gestapo agents were subjected to ideologically oriented racism and criminal biological theories; and from below, the Gestapo was transformed by SS personnel who did not have the proper police training, which showed in their propensity for unrestrained violence. [14] Himmler wanted to free himself entirely from Röhm, whom he viewed as an obstacle. Here are many translated example sentences containing "THE ARMS OF THE GESTAPO" - english-italian translations and search engine for english translations. Three—Walther Funk, Rudolf Hess, Erich Raeder—received life terms; and the remaining four—Karl Dönitz, Konstantin von Neurath, Albert Speer, and Baldur von Schirach—received shorter prison sentences. Hitler a Milano: I crimini di Theodor Saevecke capo della Gestapo (Italian Edition) [Luigi Borgomaneri] on Amazon.com. Il campo della Fiera di Belgrado (1941-1942) di Milovan Pisarri Abstract: The Sajmište concentration camp. The Poles identified and tracked German military trains to the Eastern front and identified four Order Police battalions sent to occupied areas of the Soviet Union in October 1941 that engaged in war crimes and mass murder. The force was created by Hermann Göring in 1933 by combining the various security police agencies of Prussia into one organisation. Members of the three convicted groups were subject to apprehension by Britain, the United States, the Soviet Union and France. For example, in 1939 Stettin and Frankfurt am Main only had a total of 41 Gestapo men combined. [80], In January 1933, Hermann Göring, Hitler's minister without portfolio, was appointed the head of the Prussian Police and began filling the political and intelligence units of the Prussian Secret Police with Nazi Party members. [22] This action effectively merged the police into the SS and removed it from Frick's control. A.A.A. [12] Many of the Gestapo employees in the newly established offices were young and highly educated in a wide variety of academic fields and moreover, represented a new generation of National Socialist adherents, who were hard-working, efficient, and prepared to carry the Nazi state forward through the persecution of their political opponents. [94] Personnel assigned to these auxiliary duties were often removed from the Gestapo chain of command and fell under the authority of branches of the SS. Gestapo. Yet a significant number of them still worked against the National Socialist government. Hellmuth Becker - Head of SS Division Totenkopf. [86], As a result of its 1936 merger with the Kripo (National criminal police) to form sub-units of the Sicherheitspolizei (SiPo; Security Police), the Gestapo was officially classified as a government agency. [81] A year after the organisations inception, Göring wrote in a British publication about having created the organisation on his own initiative and how he was "chiefly responsible" for the elimination of the Marxist and Communist threat to Germany and Prussia. However, certain Polish information about the movement of German police and SS units to the East during the German invasion of the Soviet Union in the autumn of 1941 was similar to information British intelligence secretly obtained through intercepting and decoding German police and SS messages sent by radio telegraphy. Arrested by the Gestapo in 1943, he was sent to. With Frick's support, Himmler (pushed on by his right-hand man, Reinhard Heydrich) took over the political police of state after state. Heydrich, named chief of the Gestapo by Himmler on 22 April 1934, also continued as head of the SS Security Service (Sicherheitsdienst; SD). [98] The vast majority of Gestapo officers came from the police forces of the Weimar Republic; members of the SS, the SA, and the NSDAP also joined the Gestapo but were less numerous. After uncovering a sample of the information the Poles had reported, Gestapo officials concluded that Polish intelligence activity represented a very serious danger to Germany. Click to read more about Operation Barbie, une Affaire d'Etats by Bertrand Delais. Nevertheless, in practice there was jurisdictional overlap and operational conflict between the SD and Gestapo. mostra. [76], In Austria, there were groups still loyal to the Habsburgs, who unlike most across the greater German Reich, remained determined to resist the Nazis. When a group or organisation was thus declared criminal, the competent national authority of any signatory had the right to bring persons to trial for membership in that organisation, with the criminal nature of the group or organisation assumed proved. [54] In 1934, a special Gestapo office was set up in Berlin to deal with homosexuality. [20] For the Gestapo, the next two years following the Night of the Long Knives, a term describing the putsch against Röhm and the SA, were characterised by "behind-the-scenes political wrangling over policing". [44] For their part, this was the first time the Gestapo operated under its new name since its 26 April 1933 founding in Prussia. [110] The majority of Gestapo informers were not full-term informers working undercover, but were rather ordinary citizens who chose to denounce other people to the Gestapo. [113] The information supplied by denunciations often led the Gestapo in determining who was arrested. The basic Gestapo law passed by the government in 1936 gave the Gestapo carte blanche to operate without judicial review—in effect, putting it above the law. [37], Polish agents also gathered detailed information about the morale of German soldiers in the East. [106] This admixture certainly shaped the Gestapo's public image which they sought to maintain despite their increasing workload; an image which helped them identify and eliminate enemies of the Nazi state. [39] Because the Gestapo seemed omniscient and omnipotent, the atmosphere of fear they created led to an overestimation of their reach and strength; a faulty assessment which hampered the operational effectiveness of underground resistance organisations. cercasi spia... disposta spiare per conto spie Capo sezione P. di Pechino (1976) Maldoror Actress (1977) Masoch Irina (1980) Malabestia Alessandra (1978) Hide all | | Edit Filmography. [89], The Gestapo became known as RSHA Amt IV ("Department or Office IV") with Heinrich Müller as its chief. [61] During the first five months of 1943, the Gestapo arrested thousands suspected of resistance activities and carried out numerous executions. +Gestapo-Phrase Exclude given word from search, e.g. Opposition became more difficult. [95] It was the Gestapo chief, SS-Brigadierführer Heinrich Müller, who kept Hitler abreast of the killing operations in the Soviet Union and who issued orders to the four Einsatzgruppen that their continual work in the east was to be "presented to the Führer. Issuu is a digital publishing platform that makes it simple to publish magazines, catalogs, newspapers, books, and more online. [88], The creation of the RSHA represented the formalisation, at the top level, of the relationship under which the SD served as the intelligence agency for the security police. [120] The Gestapo always showed a special interest in denunciations concerning sexual matters, especially cases concerning Rassenschande with Jews or between Germans and foreigners, in particular Polish slave workers; the Gestapo applied even harsher methods to the foreign workers in the country, especially those from Poland,[121] Jews, Catholics and homosexuals. Historian George C. Browder contends that there was a four-part process (authorisation, bolstering, routinisation, and dehumanisation) in effect which legitimised the psycho-social atmosphere conditioning members of the Gestapo to radicalised violence. Non si e` mai rassegnato alla perdita del figlio. [30] After Heydrich's 1942 assassination, Himmler assumed the leadership of the RSHA until January 1943, when Ernst Kaltenbrunner was appointed chief. [104], Whether trained as police originally or not, Gestapo agents themselves were shaped by their socio-political environment. Groups like the White Rose and others, such as the Edelweiss Pirates, and the Swing Youth, were placed under strict Gestapo observation. [64] Most people quickly learned that open opposition was dangerous since Gestapo informants and agents were widespread. [127] Brutality on the part of interrogators—often prompted by denunciations and followed with roundups—enabled the Gestapo to uncover numerous resistance networks; it also made them seem like they knew everything and could do anything they wanted. [7] Diels was best known as the primary interrogator of Marinus van der Lubbe after the Reichstag fire. [147][e], Leaders, organisers, investigators and accomplices participating in the formulation or execution of a common plan or conspiracy to commit the crimes specified were declared responsible for all acts performed by any persons in execution of such plan. [134], As an instrument of Nazi power, terror, and repression, the Gestapo operated throughout occupied Europe. Iniziò la sua scalata tra i ranghi del potere nazista nel 1934, entrando nelle SS e diventando, soltanto due anni dopo, capo della Gestapo. The stricter laws did not apply to lesbians as their behavior was never officially criminalized, even though their behaviors were labeled "deviant". it Venne nuovamente promosso nel 1939 al ruolo di capo della polizia e delle SS di Weimar. We were informed in prison that frequently the Gestapo disguised themselves in prisoner’s clothes in order to spy. [22], The Gestapo had the authority to investigate cases of treason, espionage, sabotage and criminal attacks on the Nazi Party and Germany. Tali ufficiali rispondevano alle autorità delle SS in cui venivano distaccati. [103] Heydrich thought along similar lines and advocated both defensive and offensive measures on the part of the Gestapo, so as to prevent any subversion or destruction of the National Socialist body. Within Germany and areas which were incorporated within the Reich for the purpose of civil administration, local offices of the Gestapo, criminal police, and SD were formally separate. Home; fearures. Registrati Connettiti Dimensione testo Aiuto العربية Deutsch English Español Français עברית Italiano 日本語 Nederlands Polski Português Română Русский Türkçe 中文 Nel 1939 divenne il capo della Gestapo e ciò gli consentì di avere un grande potere che gli permise di rispondere direttamente a Heydrich (e dopo la morte di questi a Ernst Kaltenbrunner). Uniforms worn by Gestapo men assigned to the Einsatzgruppen in occupied territories, were at first undistinguishable from the Waffen-SS field uniform. [13], By the spring of 1934 Himmler's SS controlled the SD and the Gestapo, but for him, there was still a problem, as technically the SS (and the Gestapo by proxy) was subordinated to the SA, which was under the command of Ernst Röhm. The right collar patch was black without the sig runes. [62] Efforts to resist the Nazi regime amounted to very little and had only minor chances of success, particularly since the broad percentage of the German people did not support such actions. [113] Many of the local offices were understaffed and overworked, struggling with the paper load caused by so many denunciations. This page was last edited on 27 December 2020, at 03:21. [129] As historian Eric Johnson remarked, "The Nazi terror was selective terror", with its focus upon political opponents, ideological dissenters (clergy and religious organisations), career criminals, the Sinti and Roma population, handicapped persons, homosexuals and above all, upon the Jews. This disc identified the operative as a member of the Gestapo without revealing personal information, except when ordered to do so by an authorised official. Klaus Barbie - Head of the Gestapo in Lyon. Himmler was nominally subordinate to Frick as police chief, but as Reichsführer-SS, he answered only to Hitler.